Feasibility Study of Solar Power in India - 2014

Sep, 2014   |   120  Pages   |   iData Insights   |   Format : PDF

This is an Investor Series report which provides the information on:

-Solar PV Technology
-Quantifying the Solar Resource
-Permits and Licensing
-Site Selection Criteria
-Economics and Financial Model
-Operations and Maintenance
-Energy Yield Prediction
-Case Study in Solar Sector
-Plant Design

This report will be divided in to 14 chapters which covers information on Applications of Solar PV, Solar PV Modules, Variability in Solar Irradiation, Performance Modelling, Uncertainty in Energy Yield Prediction, Technology Selection, Layout and Shading, Electrical Design, Site Security, Monitoring and Infrastructure, Interface Management, Programming and Scheduling, Environmental Management, Scheduled/Preventive Maintenance, Performance Monitoring, Evaluation and Optimization, Financial Model, Project Financing, Risks, etc.

A must buy for-Entrepreneurs, Plant Developers, Equity Investors, Equipment Manufacturers, Regulatory Agencies, Banks, Project Financiers, Investment Banks, Consultants, Policy Makers, Technology Providers, Government Agencies, Regulatory Institutions, RE Development Agencies, Central & State Power Players, Financial Institutions, Research Institutes, Private Equity Firms, etc.


2.1 Applications of Solar PV
2.2 Overview of Ground Mounted PV Power Plant
2.3 Solar PV Modules
2.4 Mounting and Tracking Systems
2.5 Inverters
2.6 Quantifying Plant Performance
2.7 Solar PV Technology Conclusions

3.1 Quantifying the Resource
3.2 Solar Resource Assessment
3.3 Variability in Solar Irradiation

4.1 Overview of Project Phases
4.2 Concept
4.3 Pre-Feasibility Study
4.4 Feasibility Study
4.5 Development
4.6 Detailed Design

5.1 Introduction
5.2 Site Selection Constraints

6.1 Irradiation on Module Plane
6.2 Performance Modelling
6.3 Energy Yield Prediction Results
6.4 Uncertainty in the Energy Yield Prediction

7.1 Technology Selection
7.2 Layout and Shading
7.3 Electrical Design
7.4 Infrastructure
7.5 Site Security
7.6 Monitoring and Forecasting
7.7 Optimising System Design
7.8 Design Documentation Requirements
7.9 Plant Design Conclusions

8.1 Permitting, Licensing and Regulatory Requirements-General
8.2 IFC Performance Standards on Social and Environmental Sustainability
8.3 Permitting, Licensing and Regulatory Requirements-India

9.1 Introduction
9.2 Interface Management
9.3 Programme and Scheduling
9.4 Cost Management
9.5 Contractor Warranties
9.6 Quality Management
9.7 Environmental and Safety Management
9.8 Health and Safety Management
9.9 Specific Solar PV Construction Issues
9.10 Construction Supervision

10.1 General Recommendations
10.2 Pre-Connection Acceptance Testing
10.3 Grid Connection
10.4 Post Connection Acceptance Testing
10.5 Provisional Acceptance
10.6 Handover Documentation

11.1Scheduled/Preventative Maintenance
11.2 Unscheduled Maintenance
11.3 Spares
11.4 Performance Monitoring, Evaluation and Optimization
11.5 Contract
11.6 Operations and Maintenance Conclusions

12.1 Economics Benefits and Costs
12.2 Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC) Cost Benchmarks
12.3 Financial Model

13.1 Introduction
13.2 Project Financing
13.4 Insurance


Appendix A- Concentrated Solar Power


2 Installed CSP Capacity


4 Review of CSP Technologies
4.1 Overview of Concentrating Solar Thermal Technologies
4.1.1 Uptake and Track Record
4.1.2 CSP Cost Trends
4.1.3 Summary Comparison
4.2 Parabolic Trough Concentrators
4.2.1 Refl ector
4.2.2 Receiver Tube
4.2.3 Heat Transfer Fluid
4.2.4 Base Frame, Tracking Systems and Connecting Elements
4.2.5 Examples from Industry
4.2.6 Losses
4.2.7 Costs
4.2.8 Conclusions
4.3 Power Tower
4.3.1 Helios tar and the Tracking and Control Mechanisms
4.3.2 Receiver, Heat Transfer Medium and Tower
4.3.3 Examples in Industry
4.3.4 Conclusions
4.4 Parabolic Dish
4.4.1 Sterling Engines
4.2.2 Conclusions
4.5 Power Block
4.6 Energy Storage and Supplementary Heating
4.6.1 Overview
4.6.2 Storage Medium (Including Molten Salts)
4.6.3 Supplementary Heating (Use of Natural Gas or LPG)
4.6.4 Costs
4.6.5 Conclusions
4.7 Cooling and Water Consumption
4.7.1 Cooling Options
4.7.2 Water Consumption
4.8 Integrated Solar Combined Cycle
4.9 Concentrated Photovoltaic (CPV)
4.9.1 Manufactures and Examples from Industry
4.9.2 CPV Advantages and Disadvantages
4.10 Linear Fresnel Reflector
4.10.1 Applications and Example
4.10.2 Reflector and Heat Transfer
4.10.3 Receiver and Hear Transfer
4.10.4 Conclusions

5 Site Selection

6 Energy Yield Prediction
6.1 Site Conditions and Data Measurements
6.2 Technology Characteristics
6.3 Energy Yield Modelling

7 Project Implementation
7.1 Overview
7.2 Design
7.2.1 Project Size and Land Area
7.2.2 Load Matching Generation
7.2.3 Solar Multiple
7.2.4 Capacity Factor
7.2.5 Grade of Heat
7.3 Development
7.4 Engineering Procurement and Construction
7.5 Uncertainties and Risks
7.5.1 Achieving Performance Improvements
7.5.2 Realizing Learning Rate Effects
7.5.3 Supply Chain Competition
7.5.4 Short Term Cost Uncertainties

8 Conclusion

Appendix A-Concentrated Solar Power
Appendix B- AC Benchmarks
Appendix C- EPC Contract Model Heads of Terms
Appendix D- O&M Contract Model Heads of Terms



Figure 1 : Overview of Solar PV Power Plant
Figure 2 : (a) PV Technology Classes
Figure 2 : (b) Development of Research Cell Efficiencies
Figure 3 : (b) Figure 4 : Effect of Tilt on Solar Energy Capture
Figure 5 : Benefit of Dual Axis Tracking System
Figure 6 : PV System Configurations
Figure 7 : Transformer and Transformer less Inverter Schematic
Figure 8 : Efficiency Curves of Low, Medium and High Efficiency Inverters as Functions of the Input Power to Inverter Rated Capacity Ratios
Figure 9 : Inverter Manufacture Market Share 2009
Figure 10 : Annual Average Global Horizontal Irradiation
Figure 11 : Example Pyranometer Measuring GHI (Image courtesy: Kipp & Zonen)
Figure 12 : Annual Average Daily Global Horizontal Irradiation for India at 40-km Resolution
Figure 13 : Annual Mean Horizontal Solar Irradiation for Three Cities in India
Figure 14 : Monthly Diffuse and Direct Solar Irradiation in Chennai, India
Figure 15 : Large Scale PV Plant
Figure 16 : Uncertainty in Energy Yield Prediction
Figure 17 : Sun-path Diagram for Chennai, India
Figure 18 : Shading Angle Diagram (Image courtesy of Schletter Gmbh)
Figure 19 : Voltage and Power Dependency Graphs of Inverter Efficiency
Figure 20 : PV Array Showing String Cables
Figure 21 : Typical Transformer Locations and Voltage Levels in a Solar Plant where Export to Grid is at HV
Figure 22 : PV System Monitoring Schematic
Figure 23 : Components of a Forecasting Systems
Figure 24 : Spacing Between Module Rows
Figure 25 : Solar Panel Covered with Dust
Figure 26 : Benchmark Solar PV Plant Cost Breakdown according to CERC


Appendix A- Concentrated Solar Power

Figure 1: Average Daily Direct Normal Solar Irradiation for Selected Asian Countries (kWh.m2/day)
Figure 2: Ideal Representation of a Concentrating Solar Power System
Figure 3: Solar Thermal Concentrator Types
Figure 4: Typical CSP Power Plant Schematic (Parabolic Trough with Storage)
Figure 5: Implementation of CSP Technologies
Figure 6: Generating Cost for Recently Completed and Under Construction CSP Projects
Figure 7: An Example of a Parabolic Trough Concentrator
Figure 8: An Example of a Parabolic Concentrator Solar Plant
Figure 9: Component Cost as a Percentage of Overall Plant Cost
Figure 10: Installed Cost as a Percentage of Overall Plant Cost
Figure 11: Generating Cost of a Parabolic Trough Plant
Figure 12: An Example of Solar Power Tower Technology
Figure 13: An Example of a Parabolic Dish System
Figure 14: Implementation of Energy Storage in CSP Plants
Figure 15: ISCC Plant Schematic
Figure 16: IIIustration of Typical CPV Concentrating Mechanism
Figure 17: Example of Sol Focus CPV Installation
Figure 18: Kimber Lina solar thermal energy, plant installed by AREVA Solar (USA)


Tables 1: Characteristics of Various PV technology classes
Tables 2: PV Module Standards
Tables 3: Indicate List of Inverter-related Standards
Tables 4: Inter-Annual Various in Solar Resource from Analysis of NASA SSE
Tables 5: Losses in a PV Power Plant
Tables 6: Comparison of Module Technical Specifications at STC
Tables 7: Inverter Selection Criteria
Tables 8: Inverter Specification
Tables 9: Defi nition of Ingress Protection (IP) Ratings
Tables 10: Performance Optimization Strategies
Tables 11: Annotated Wiring Diagram Requirements
Tables 12: Solar PV Project Interfaces
Tables 13: Typical EPC Payment Schedule
Tables 14: Warranty Types and Requirements
Tables 15: Benchmark Costs

Appendix A -Concentrated Solar Power

Tables 1: CSP Installed Capacity (MW)
Tables 2: Comparison of solar Thermal Concentrating Technologies
Tables 3: Parabolic Trough Reference Plant Characteristic
Tables 4: Condenser Cooling Options
Tables 5: Water Requirements for Different CSP Plant Types
Tables 6: Examples of ISCC Plants
Tables 7: Load Matching Options

Appendix B-AC Specification

Tables 1: Cable Specification
Tables 2: Switchgear Specification
Tables 3: Transformer Specification

Appendix C-EPC Contract Model Heads of Terms

Tables 1 - Milestone Payments and Transfer of Title

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